Wednesday, March 9, 2016

Scotophobin, Fear, Memories and The Mandela Effect


Scotophobin

by Chris Chaos

Is memory chemically based? What causes fear? Is there a way to forget a memory or a fear all together?

Scotophobin: a peptide produced in the brain of laboratory rats conditioned to have a fear of darkness: it is claimed that such a fear may be transferred to unconditioned rats by injection of the peptide, thus providing evidence for the theory that memory has a chemical basis.
 
Master Splinter post amygdala lesion

The fear of the dark is a common fear or phobia among children and, to a varying degree, of adults. Fear of the dark is usually not fear of darkness itself, but fear of possible or imagined dangers concealed by darkness. Some degree of fear of the dark is natural, especially as a phase of child development. Most observers report that fear of the dark seldom appears before the age of 2 years. When fear of the dark reaches a degree that is severe enough to be considered pathological, it is sometimes called achluophobia or nyctophobia

Some researchers, beginning with Sigmund Freud, consider the fear of the dark as a manifestation of separation anxiety disorder.

An alternate theory was posited in the 1960s, when scientists conducted experiments in a search for molecules responsible for memory. In one experiment, rats, normally nocturnal animals, were conditioned to fear the dark and a substance called "scotophobin" was supposedly extracted from the rats' brains; this substance was claimed to be responsible for remembering this fear.

Human Memory

Scientists have been busy conducting research and conducting experiments on the brain, memories and the erasing of memories. The University of California in San Diego, conducted experiments where they would shine light on areas of the brain to erase memories in the brain and bring them back. " We can form a memory, erase that memory and can reactivate it, at will, by applying a stimulus that selectively strengthens or weakens synaptic connections."
An emerging science called optogenetics is born.. An inception moment is realized.


Professor Elizabeth Phelps

40 million Americans suffer from anxiety disorders and one of the most common is PTSD (Posttraumatic stress disorder), many are caused from trauma experienced from war. Other common and widespread phobias are close spaces, crowds, heights and spiders. Many of the disorders are currently treated with drugs, which have dangerous side effects.

NYU Psychology Professor Elizabeth Phelps and her team have cracked the code of how the brain stores and then restores memories. Utilizing that info you can manipulate the storage of memories and erase the negative ones. Using her memory re-consolidation technique could offer new ways to treat anxiety disorders.

Priming is mind control?
During an experiment 120 people were put in a room that HAVE been to Disney World/Land sometime over the course of their life, they were primed them with questions concerning Bugs Bunny and a cardboard cutout of Bugs was placed in the room with them during the session, then the test subjects were asked if they ever saw Bugs Bunny at Disney World/Land, chances are the majority will say yes, but obviously they did not since Bugs is not a Disney character. [1]

THE MANDELA EFFECT:
The false memory/recall that many believe that Nelson Mandela passed away in prison, which he did not, he died on December 5, 2013 in Johannesburg, South Africa. Ironically in the summer of 2013 the news accidentally reported Mandela's passing.

This theory also bleeds over into many pop culture incidents that people are recalling incorrectly. Many theorists state that this is absolute proof that there are alternative universes. One of the most popular examples is of the Berenstain Bears or Berenstein Bears – Which do you recall?

A quick video on this concerning the bears

Reece who is a physicist, and he went on to describe a theory of the universe that would account for the Mandela Effect, based on a 4-dimensional universe:

  "I propose that the universe is a 4-dimensional complex manifold. If you don’t se habla math jargon, that means I propose the 3 space dimensions and the 1 time dimensions are actually in themselves complex, meaning they take values of the form a+ib, part “real” and part “imaginary”. Within this 4D manifold, there are sixteen hexadectants (like quadrants, but 16 of them), corresponding to whether we consider only the real or imaginary part of each of the four dimensions. In our particular hexadectant, the three space dimensions are real, and the time dimension is imaginary."

But if you buy into the idea of memories from alternate universes, no amount of logic or reasoning will dissuade you from your beliefs.

Drive produces motivation..although the editors of the below video took a few creative liberties, the main idea of using "the carrot in front of the donkey" still holds fast, and the point is gotten to rather quickly, but when motivating humans it is usually entertainment based: sex, cigarettes, alcohol, television, video games etc. and of course, in the form of money. But all in all usually the endless pursuits of trivial time wasters.

The Rat Experiment Video

AMYGDALA:
The amygdalae  are two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans. Shown in research to perform a primary role in the processing of memory, decision-making, and emotional reactions, the amygdalae are considered part of the limbic system.

Amygdala location within the brain

AMYGDALA AND FEAR:
There are cases of human patients with focal bilateral amygdala lesions, due to the rare genetic condition Urbach-Wiethe disease. Such patients fail to exhibit fear-related behaviors, leading one, Patient S.M., to be dubbed the "woman with no fear". This finding reinforces the conclusion that the amygdala "plays a pivotal role in triggering a state of fear". [2]
Amygdala location within the brain

The below video shows a rat going for food pre-amygdala lesion. The rat is hesitant and fear is present as it runs from the robot.



Rats are more commonly used in lab experiments over Guinea Pigs
This video  shows the rat going for food post amygdala lesion.The fear has been removed and the rat disregards the robot.


Fear of natural items or situations are an inbred fear that quite possibly has been passed down through the generations, can we say instinct? Examples are snakes, heights, spiders and other things that can be dangerous to humans. There is emerging evidence that memories of fear could possibly passed down through DNA.

A 2013 study from Emory University found that  mice trained to fear a specific odor would pass their emotions on to their offspring and future generations. Scientists applied electric shocks to mice as they exposed them to the smell of cherry blossoms. The mice then bred, and both the children and grandchildren of the affected rodents demonstrated a fear of cherry blossoms the first time they smelled them. [3]

Teleportation of bacteria's memories made possible by Schrödinger and his cat
 "The authors suggest that the real-life teleportation of an organism's memories is possible though, in their report published in Science Bulletin. The idea involves using an everyday bacterium which has been frozen to a cryogenic state, to stop all chemical activity." Check out the full story here:
 Teleportation of Bacteria's Memory Made Possible

[1] http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/story?id=98195&page=1
[2] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fear_processing_in_the_brain
[3] http://www.nature.com/articles/nn.3594.epdf?referrer_access_token=9XLm27A8J_adXknih_VkmNRgN0jAjWel9jnR3ZoTv0MLhU4y4LZkONbbyIJwg8aP95fxT3WZmPpkBGiHfLfX0yfM79Am0xNBgmHVATzMsEw=

(Chris Chaos is a long time resident of South Jersey who once again resides in and writes from Gloucester City, New Jersey. He is a filmmaker, a business owner, writer, urban explorer and investigator of the odd and weird, a proud parent, happily taken and a connoisseur of hot wings. Chris can be reached at AxisVideo@aol.com)